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What is Non-Ionizing Radiation? April 6, 2007

Posted by healthyself in 0 Hz-3kHz, 000 Hz, 1 GHz- 300 GHz, 1 mm, 100 nm - 400 nm, 3 kHz-300 GHz, 300 GHz, 400 nm - 700 nm, 700 nm, Amplified Signals, Amplitude, Analog, Antennas, Atmospheric Pressure, Blogroll, Bytes, Cable, Cell Masts, Cell Phones, Coherence, Computer Rooms, Cordless Phones, DECT, Distribution, Earth, EEG, EHF, Electrical Components, Electrical Pulses, Electrical Surges, Electrical Wiring, electromagnetic, Electromagnetic Communications, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Interference, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic Radiation, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, ELF, EMF Research, EMF's, EMR, Entropy, Environment, Exposure, Fiber Optic, Frequencies, Hand Portables, Handheld Units, HF, High Frequencies, high voltage transmission lines, Internet, ionizing radiation, Landline, Laptops, LF, Lifestyle, Light, light beam, Long Term Health Risks, Low Frequencies, Magnetic, MCS, MF, MHz, Microwave exposure, Mobile Music, mobile telephones, Non-Thermal Levels, Penetration, Photons, Photosensitive, Pulsed Radiation, Pulses, Pure Tone, QV, Radar, Radians, radiation, Radio Frequency Radiation, Radio Waves, radioprotector, Radios, Research Needed, Resonance, Resonant Frequency, ringing, ringtones, Risk of Disease, Safe Levels, Safety, SAR, Schuman Resonance, SHF, Speakerphones, Spectrum, Telecommunications, Telephony, Transducer, Transfer, transmission, UHF, Ultraviolet, VDT, Visible Light, VLF, W/Kg, W/m2, watts, Wave Front, Waves, Who is Affected?, WiFi, Wired, Wired Phone, Wireless, Wireless Phones, X-Rays.
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Definitions

The properties and effects of non-ionising radiations are very diverse. For the purpose of this Policy non-ionising radiations include:

Extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation

Electromagnetic radiation with frequencies in the range 0 Hz (static fields) to 3 kHz, including the 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields associated with the domestic mains electricity supply such as in domestic electrical appliances, electricity supply substations and overhead power lines.

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation

Electromagnetic radiation with frequencies in the range 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which is produced by artificial sources such as visual display units and mobile phones.

Microwave (MW) radiation

Electromagnetic radiation with frequencies in the range 1 GHz to 300 GHz, which is produced by artificial sources such as in microwave ovens and by microwave communication devices. (This radiation is now considered part of Radiofrequency radiation.)

Infrared (IR) radiation

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 700 nm and 1 mm, which is present in sunlight and produced by artificial sources such as electric radiator heaters.

Visible light

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 400 nm (blue) and 700 nm (red), which is present in sunlight and produced by numerous artificial sources, including lasers.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 100 nm and 400 nm, which is present in sunlight as well as produced by artificial sources such as arc welding and sterilization lamps.

http://www.unisa.edu.au/policies/policies/hr/HR30.asp

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What are Electric and Magnetic Fields? April 6, 2007

Posted by healthyself in Blogroll, Definitions, Earth, Electrical Components, Electrical Pulses, Electrical Surges, Electrical Wiring, electromagnetic, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Radiation, Electromagnetic waves, EMF's, EMR, Environment, Frequencies, High Frequencies, high voltage transmission lines, Hz, LF, Light, light beam, Low Frequencies, Magnetic, MCS, MF, MHz, Microwave exposure, Pulsed Radiation, Pulses, Radar, Radians, radiation, Radio Frequency Radiation, Radio Waves, Resonant Frequency, Safe Levels, Transducer, transmission, UHF, VDT, VLF, W/Kg, W/m2, watts, Wave Front, Waves.
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Electric fields

Magnetic fields

  1. Electric fields arise from voltage.
  2. Their strength is measured in Volts per metre (V/m)
  3. An electric field can be present even when a device is switched off.
  4. Field strength decreases with distance from the source.
  5. Most building materials shield electric fields to some extent.
  1. Magnetic fields arise from current flows.
  2. Their strength is measured in amperes per meter (A/m). Commonly, EMF investigators use a related measure, flux density (in microtesla (µT) or millitesla (mT) instead.
  3. Magnetic fields exist as soon as a device is switched on and current flows.
  4. Field strength decreases with distance from the source.
  5. Magnetic fields are not attenuated by most mat

http://www.who.int/peh-emf/about/WhatisEMF/en/

Fiber Optics and EMF’s October 22, 2006

Posted by healthyself in Amplified Signals, Amplitude, Cell phone safety, Cell Phones, Children's health, Conversations, Cordless Phones, Decision Making, Distribution, Electrical Components, Electrical Pulses, Electrical Surges, Electrical Wiring, Electrochemical, Electromagetic pollution, Electromagnetic Communications, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Interference, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic Radiation, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, ELF, EMF Research, EMF's, EMR, Environment, Exposure, Family, Fiber Optic, Health related, HOuseholds, Lifestyle, Light, light beam, MCS, Men's Health, mobile telephones, Networks, Pulsed Radiation, Pulses, radiation, Radio Frequency Radiation, Radio Waves, Radios, Research, Research Needed, Safety, Solutions, Stress, Telecommunications, Telephony, transmission, Who is Affected?, Women's Health, Workplace.
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“No EMF or RF interference
The very nature of fiber optic transmission makes it virtually immune to electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference – and even lightning – which can be especially valuable in environments such as power-transmission or generating facilities, antenna or broadcast installations, or certain industrial environments.”

http://www.panasonic.com/business/security/fiberoptics.asp

‘Manageable’ fear a handy safety tool

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‘As fiber optics continues to spread throughout broadband communication plants, and new fiber equipment is beginning to feature higher power outputs, many safety and training professionals in the industry are re-energizing their fiber optic training efforts. Kevin Wilkes, director of field services for Integration Technologies, says that while fiber optic technology continues to change, fiber optic safety issues have not. In fact, he believes new technology only underscores the importance of long-term safety training that needs a healthy dose of fear to succeed.

“I think probably 99 percent of the concerns about safety involving fiber have not changed with technology,” says Wilkes. “I think they’ve been amplified by higher launch powers and connectivity. But, the basis is still there for problems with the eyes.

“It’s pretty straightforward…. Of course, there are other things to worry about. But they’re pretty trivial compared to the eyes. You instill what I call ‘manageable’ fear. And, there’s nothing wrong with that at all. Because too much comfort breeds carelessness.”

http://www.cedmagazine.com/article/CA6261762.html

Advantages of Fiber Optic Systems

“Fiber optic transmission systems – a fiber optic transmitter and receiver, connected by fiber optic cable – offer a wide range of benefits not offered by traditional copper wire or coaxial cable. These include:1. The ability to carry much more information and deliver it with greater fidelity than either copper wire or coaxial cable.

2. Fiber optic cable can support much higher data rates, and at greater distances, than coaxial cable, making it ideal for transmission of  serial digital data.

3. The fiber is totally immune to virtually all kinds of interference, including lightning, and will not conduct electricity. It can therefore   come in direct contact with high voltage electrical equipment and power lines. It will also not create ground loops of any kind.

4. As the basic fiber is made of glass, it will not corrode and is unaffected by most chemicals. It can be buried directly in most kinds of  soil or exposed to most corrosive atmospheres in chemical plants without significant concern.

5. Since the only carrier in the fiber is light, there is no possibility of a spark from a broken fiber. Even in the most explosive of atmospheres, there is no fire hazard, and no danger of electrical shock to personnel repairing broken fibers.

6. Fiber optic cables are virtually unaffected by outdoor atmospheric conditions, allowing them to be lashed directly to telephone poles or existing electrical cables without concern for extraneous signal pickup.

7. A fiber optic cable, even one that contains many fibers, is usually much smaller and lighter in weight than a wire or coaxial cable with similar information carrying capacity. It is easier to handle and install, and uses less duct space. (It can frequently be installed without ducts.)

8. Fiber optic cable is ideal for secure communications systems because it is very difficult to tap but very easy to monitor. In addition, there is absolutely no electrical radiation from a fiber.”

http://www.commspecial.com/fiberguide-print.htm

How is the Electromagnetic Radiation Measured? October 16, 2006

Posted by healthyself in Blogroll, Definitions, Electrical Components, Electrical Pulses, Electrical Surges, Electrical Wiring, Electromagetic pollution, electromagnetic, Electromagnetic Communications, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Interference, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, ELF, EMF's, EMR, Environment, Exposure, Frequencies, GHz, Global Warming, Government's role, HF, High Frequencies, high voltage transmission lines, HOuseholds, Hz, Infrared, LF, Lifestyle, light beam, Low Frequencies, MF, MHz, Microwave exposure, Pulsed Radiation, Pulses, Quantum Waves, radiation, Radio Waves, Radios, Sound, Spectrum, transmission, Ultraviolet, Unified Field, Visible Light, VLF, Waves.
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…The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is …types of radiation … as a group. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes– visible light …. from a lamp….or radio waves .. or from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples of EM radiation are microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays. Hotter, more energetic objects and events create higher energy radiation than cool objects. Only extremely hot objects or particles moving at very high velocities can create high-energy radiation like X-rays and gamma-rays. Here are the different types of radiation in the EM spectrum, in order from lowest energy to highest:

Radio Radio: …this is the same kind of energy that radio stations emit into the air …to capture and turn into your favorite Mozart, Madonna, or Coolio tunes. But radio waves are also emitted by other things … such as stars and gases in space…
Microwave Microwaves: … will cook your popcorn in just a few minutes! In space, microwaves are used by astronomers to learn about the structure of nearby galaxies, including our own Milky Way!
Infrared to UV Infrared: we often think of this as being the same thing as ‘heat’, because it makes our skin feel warm. In space, IR light maps the dust between stars. Visible:…this is the part that our eyes see. Visible radiation is emitted by everything from fireflies to light bulbs to stars … also by fast-moving particles hitting other particles.

Ultraviolet: we know that the Sun is a source of ultraviolet (or UV) radiation, because it is the UV rays that cause our skin to burn! Stars and other “hot” objects in space emit UV radiation.

X-ray X-rays: your doctor uses them to look at your bones and your dentist to look at your teeth. Hot gases in the Universe also emit X-rays .
Gamma-ray Gamma-rays: radioactive materials (some natural and others made by man in things like nuclear power plants) can emit gamma-rays. Big particle accelerators that scientists use to help them understand what matter is made of can sometimes generate gamma-rays. But the biggest gamma-ray generator of all is the Universe! It makes gamma radiation in all kinds of ways.

A Radio Wave is not a Gamma-Ray, a Microwave is not an X-ray … or is it?

Across the EM spectrum
Radio waves, visible light, X-rays, and all the other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are fundamentally the same thing, electromagnetic radiation.

We may think that radio waves are completely different physical objects or events than gamma-rays. They are produced in very different ways, and we detect them in different ways. But are they really different things? The answer is ‘no’. Radio waves, visible light, X-rays, and all the other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are fundamentally the same thing. They are all electromagnetic radiation.

Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, which are massless particles each traveling in a wave-like pattern and moving at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain amount (or bundle) of energy, and all electromagnetic radiation consists of these photons. The only difference between the various types of electromagnetic radiation is the amount of energy found in the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwaves have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared has still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and … the most energetic of all … gamma-rays.

Across the EM spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency.

“Actually, the electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Each way of thinking about the EM spectrum is related to the others in a precise mathematical way. So why do we have three ways of describing things, each with a different set of physical units? After all, frequency is measured in cycles per second (which is called a Hertz), wavelength is measured in meters, and energy is measured in electron volts.”

“The answer is that scientists don’t like to use big numbers when they don’t have to. It is much easier to say or write “two kilometers or 2 km” than “two thousand meters or 2,000 m”. So generally, scientists use whatever units are easiest for whatever they are working with. In radio astronomy, astronomers tend to use wavelengths or frequencies. This is because most of the radio part of the EM spectrum falls in the range from a about 1 cm to 1 km (30 gigahertz (GHz) to 100 kilohertz (kHz)). The radio is a very broad part of the EM spectrum. Infrared astronomers also use wavelength to describe their part of the EM spectrum. They tend to use microns (or millionths of meters) for wavelengths, so that they can say their part of the EM spectrum falls in the range 1 to 100 microns. Optical astronomers use wavelengths as well. In the older “CGS” version of the metric system, the units used were angstroms. An angstrom is equal to 0.0000000001 meters (10-10 m in scientific notation)! In the newer “SI” version of the metric system, we think of visible light in units of nanometers or 0.000000001 meters (10-9 m). In this system, the violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red light we know so well has wavelengths between 400 and 700 nanometers. This range is only a small part of the entire EM spectrum, so you can tell that the light we see is just a little fraction of all the EM radiation around us! By the time you get to the ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma-ray regions of the EM spectrum, lengths have become too tiny to think about any more. So scientists usually refer to these photons by their energies, which are measured in electron volts. Ultraviolet radiation falls in the range from a few electron volts (eV) to a about 100 eV. X-ray photons have energies in the range 100 eV to 100,000 eV (or 100 keV). Gamma-rays then are all the photons with energies greater than 100 keV.

Why Do We Have to Go to Space to See All of the Electromagnetic Spectrum?

diagram of EM radiation that reaches the Earth's surface

Electromagnetic radiation from space is unable to reach the surface of the Earth except at a very few wavelengths, such as the visible spectrum, radio frequencies, and some ultraviolet wavelengths. Astronomers can get above enough of the Earth’s atmosphere to observe at some infrared wavelengths from mountain tops or by flying their telescopes in an aircraft. Experiments can also be taken up to altitudes as high as 35 km by balloons which can operate for months. Rocket flights can take instruments all the way above the Earth’s atmosphere for just a few minutes before they fall back to Earth, but a great many important first results in astronomy and astrophysics came from just those few minutes of observations. For long-term observations, however, it is best to have your detector on an orbiting satellite … and get above it all!

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/emspectrum.html

What is Flickering? or the Flicker Rate? October 5, 2006

Posted by healthyself in 16-25 Hz, 3-60 Hz, 50 Hz, 60 Hz, Adolescents, Bioeffects, Biological Effects, Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Cell Phones, Children's health, Chromosomal damage, Chronic Fatigue, Definitions, Electrical Components, Electrical Pulses, Electrical Wiring, Electromagnetic Communications, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic waves, EMF's, Environment, Epilepsy, Exposure, Eyes, Flickering, Frequencies, GHz, Health related, HOuseholds, Hz, Interdisciplinary, Lifestyle, light beam, nerves, Oscillate, Photosensitive, Pulsed Radiation, radiation, School administrators, Spacial Contrast Patterns, Symptoms, Teenagers, Telephony, Toxic Interactions.
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Flickering is the opposing changes in intensity of luminosity. This is usually caused by flashing, but can also be caused by spatial contrast patterns that oscillate at dangerous frequencies; the type of images that people create to deliberately stimulate a response in the recipient that makes them believe the image is moving or changing. For people with photosensitive epilepsy, flickering causes many of the nerve cells that process visual stimuli to all fire at once, resulting in a seizure”

“Along with the frequency of the flickering, the size and luminous intensity of the stimuli is significant for people with photosensitive epilepsy. The greater the intensity and larger the size of the stimuli, the greater the danger of provoking seizures caused by flickering at dangerous frequencies.”

“The colour red is particularly dangerous due to its longer wavelength that stimulates cones in the retina. There have been cases where photosensitive epileptic seizures have been triggered by cyclists while setting up the red flashing rear lights on their bicycle. Even when there is no perceived difference in the luminosity of the contrasting colours, red flickering is far more likely to cause seizures than other colours.”
“Television programmes are thought to be the most common cause for triggering photosensitive epileptic seizures. The most famous incident of photosensitive epilepsy caused by a television programme is the Pokémon episode, Electronic Soldier Porygon , which was aired in Japan in 1997. Nearly 700 children were admitted to hospital through photosensitive epilepsy that was thought to have been induced by the episode.”

People with photosensitive epilepsy can have seizures triggered by flickering or flashing in the 4 to 59 flashes per second (Hertz) range with a peak sensitivity at 20 flashes per second as well as quick changes from dark to light (like strobe lights).When content violates either the general flash threshold or the red flash threshold , users are warned in a way that they can avoid it

Content does not violate the general flash threshold or red flash threshold

“Allowing people to choose whether or not they receive the content is better than not providing a warning, but there are other factors to consider. The first is that as photosensitive epilepsy is most common in children, it could be that they don’t understand or appreciate the significance of the warning. It isn’t just children; people with reading difficulties or speakers of languages other than the language of the warning may also inadvertently be exposed to content that could induce seizures.”

“Although the size of the stimuli is significant, there is still a danger of material that is considered to be safe being changed by the visitor. For example, low vision users increasing the size of flickering material, or someone leaning in close to the screen.”

“The safest way to avoid causing photosensitive epilepsy is to completely avoid creating web content that flickers.”

“People with photosensitive epilepsy who suddenly find themselves exposed to material that could trigger a seizure should immediately cover one eye with the palm of their hand to reduce the number of brain cells that are stimulated by the flickering content, and either close the page or navigate away from the page.”

“Photosensitive epilepsy is a form of epilepsy that is triggered by visual stimuli, such as flickering or high contrast oscillating patterns, and it’s believed that around 3% to 5% of people with epilepsy are susceptible to photosensitive material. Photosensitive epilepsy is usually triggered where the flicker rate is between 16Hz to 25Hz, although it’s not uncommon for seizures to be triggered by flicker rates between 3Hz to 60Hz. The condition most commonly effects children, and is usually developed between the ages of 9 and 15 years, and most prevalent in females.”

Computer Monitors Affect the Nervous System October 1, 2006

Posted by healthyself in 100 Hz, 60 Hz, 85 Hz, Attention, Biological Effects, Blogroll, Brain, Cell phone safety, Central Nervous System, Electrical Components, Electrical Pulses, Electrical Surges, Electromagetic pollution, Electromagnetic Communications, Electromagnetic Interference, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, ELF, EMF Research, Environment, Exposure, Fatigue, Frequencies, Health related, HOuseholds, Hz, Inner Agitation, Lifestyle, Light, light beam, Long Term Health Risks, Men's Health, Microwave exposure, Optical, Pulsed Radiation, Pulses, radiation, Research Needed, Short-sightedness, teeth grinding, Women's Health, Workplace, yawning.
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CRT Users Beware!

“Many people are still using CRT monitors set at 60 Hz or 85 Hz around the world….What they don’t realise is that these refresh levels have side-effects of inducing tiredness, yawning, short-sightedness and the most destructive of which is tooth grinding at night. Unstable images on a CRT can induce tooth grinding subsconciously at night, since an unstable flashing image is disturbing to the brain’s nervous system.”

“Tooth griding permanently destroys your teeth and you can’t get back lost enamel tissue. Restoration of damaged teeth is extremely expensive, more than your monitor and your damaged teeth will have an effect on your health, as teeth is the major organ of healthy digestion. Digestion begins in the mouth as the proper breakdown of food. If you can’t digest your food properly, then you will not last long on this Earth.”
“New CRT TVs (not monitors) are widely advertised at being 100 Hz.”

“Why we are still stuck at a so-called safety standard of 85 Hz, which still induces the CRT side-effects as mentioned above is amazing….The bottom line is to see if you can set your CRT to at least 100 Hz and take to regular breaks from the screen….Breaks are important for LCD users as well, since human eyes were not designed to stare and focus at a light source for a long time.”

http://interface.blog.com/612332/

What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? September 21, 2006

Posted by healthyself in Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Color, Definitions, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic waves, Frequencies, Gamma Rays, Infrared, Light, light beam, Low Frequencies, Magnetic, MHz, Microwave exposure, Oscillate, Photons, Radio Waves, Spectrum, Visible Light.
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“..Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern, moving at the speed of light and carrying some amount of energy. … the only difference between radio waves, visible light, and gamma-rays is the energy of the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwaves have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared has still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.””Actually, the amount of energy a photon has makes it sometimes behave more like a wave and sometimes more like a particle. This is called the “ wave-particle duality” of light. …only in how it behaves. Low energy photons (such as radio) behave more like waves, while higher energy photons (such as X-rays) behave more like particles. …the electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Each way of thinking about the EM spectrum is related to the others in a precise mathematical way. The relationships are:
the wavelength equals the speed of light divided by the frequency
or
lambda = c / nu” http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/emspectrum.html

Neural Information September 19, 2006

Posted by healthyself in Beta Rhythm, Bioeffects, Biological Activity, Biological Effects, Biomimetic, Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Communication, Consciousness, Definitions, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, ELF, Emergency Medicine, EMF's, EMR, Entrainment, Environment, Exposure, Frequencies, Hand Portables, HF, HOuseholds, Hz, LF, Light, light beam, Long Term Health Risks, Men's Health, MHz, Microwave exposure, mobile telephones, nerves, neurological, neurons, Noise, Oscillate, Penetration, Pulsed Radiation, Quantum Physics, radiation, Resonant Frequency, Safe Levels, Transfer, Transformation, transmission, Vibration, Vibrational Medicine, Who is Affected?, Workplace.
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"Within the last two decades (Persinger, Ludwig, & Ossenkopp, 
1973) a potential has emerged which was improbable but which 
is now marginally feasible. This potential is the technical capability 
to influence directly the major portion of the approximately six 
billion brains of the human species without meditation through 
classical sensory modalities by generating neural information within 
a physical medium within which all members of the species are 
immersed."

[The medium he is referring to is the atmosphere of this planet.]
http://www.mindspring.com/~txporter/persemf.htm

Trip the Light Fantastic September 18, 2006

Posted by healthyself in Cell phone safety, Electrical Wiring, EMF Research, Light, light beam, Optical, Organic.
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Fiber Optics to Replace Electronic Switches Using Organic Molecules

Robert F. Service

“Technology visionaries foresee speeding up fiber-optic communications by replacing today’s electronic switches and other components with all-optical devices. So far, however, few optical materials allow one light beam to manipulate another–a feat that requires “third-order” nonlinear optical properties. On page 1233, researchers report developing organic molecules that have third-order properties 35 times larger than ever observed before. They are proof of principle of a scheme that could lead to practical optical switches.”

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/276/5316/1195b