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What is a Ring Back Tone? September 24, 2006

Posted by healthyself in 40 Hz, 440 Hz, 480 Hz, Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Cell Phones, Definitions, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, Environment, Frequencies, Hearing, Lifestyle, Mobile Music, mobile telephones, Music, Pulsed Radiation, Sound, Telephony, Tone, Waves.
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“A ringback tone, or audible ringing tone or ringback signal, is the audible ringing that is heard on the telephone line by the calling party after dialing and prior to the call being answered at the distant end. The ringback tone is different in various countries depending on the requirements for the ringback specification in those countries. … the standard ringback signal is generated by summing a 440Hz tone with a 480Hz tone and applying these to the telephone line in a 2 second on and 4 second off cadence. The tone combination produces a warbling “ring… ring…” sound, caused by the 40Hz beat between the two. Most other countries use a single tone, …The ringback signal may be generated by the called-party servicing switch or by the calling-party switch, but it is not generated by the called telephone instrument. It is generally started and stopped at the same rate as the ringing signal itself but perhaps out of phase.”

In recent years, “personalized ringback” tone has become globally popular. With this feature, callers will hear an audio selection applied to the telephone line that has been previously determined by the called party. Audio selections can include music, messages, and special effects. Equipment is installed in the telephone network to enable replacement of the standard ringback tone with a personalized audio selection. ..Various companies supply personalized ringback equipment for mobile phone and landline telephone companies….The use of such nonstandard telephony signals can cause problems with automatic dialing equipment such as faxes and modems, however lines intended to receive such data telephone calls normally have the proper ringback tone. In addition, a caller may define specific users to whom the personalized content will be played. Other callers will hear the “traditional” ringback tone.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ringback_tone

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What is Tone? September 22, 2006

Posted by healthyself in 1000 Hz, 320 Hz, 440 Hz, 880 Hz, Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Cell Phones, Ear, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Frequencies, Harmonics, Hearing, Noise, Pitch, Sound, Spectrum, Tone, Waves.
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Tone (music and acoustics)

Physically, a sound that is composed of discrete frequency (or sine-wave) components; psychologically, an auditory sensation that is characterized foremost by its pitch or pitches.

The physical definition distinguishes a tone from a noise, wherein the components form a continuum of frequencies. Tones may be pure, consisting of a single frequency, or they may be complex. Complex tones, in turn, may be periodic or not periodic. Periodic complex tones repeat themselves at rapid regular intervals. They have frequency components that are harmonics—discrete frequencies that are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency. For example, the tone of an oboe consists of a fundamental frequency of 440 hertz, a second harmonic component with a frequency of 880 Hz, a third harmonic at 1320 Hz, and so on. In general, musical instruments that generate continuous sounds—the bowed strings, the brasses, and the woodwinds—create such periodic tones. Tones that are not periodic (aperiodic) have frequency components that do not fit a harmonic series. Percussive instruments such as kettledrums and bells make such aperiodic tones.

Pitch is a sensation of highness or lowness that is the basic element of melody. Periodic complex tones tend to have a single pitch, which listeners will match by a pure tone having a frequency equal to the fundamental frequency of the periodic complex tone. Aperiodic complex tones tend to have multiple pitches. A second psychological attribute of complex tones is tone color or timbre. Tone color is often represented by descriptive adjectives. The adjectives may be linked to the physical spectrum. Thus, a tone with strong harmonics above 1000 Hz may be called “bright.” A tone with no harmonics at all above 1000 Hz may be called “dull” or “stuffy.”

tone (tōn) pronunciation
n.

  1. Music.
    1. A sound of distinct pitch, quality, and duration; a note.
    2. The interval of a major second in the diatonic scale; a whole step.
    3. A recitational melody in a Gregorian chant.
    1. The quality or character of sound.
    2. The characteristic quality or timbre of a particular instrument or voice.
    1. The pitch of a word used to determine its meaning or to distinguish differences in meaning.
    2. The particular or relative pitch of a word, phrase, or sentence.
  2. Manner of expression in speech or writing: took an angry tone with the reporters.
  3. A general quality, effect, or atmosphere: a room with an elegant tone.
    1. A color or shade of color: light tones of blue.
    2. Quality of color: The green wallpaper had a particularly somber tone.
  4. The general effect in painting of light, color, and shade.
  5. Physiology.
    1. The normal state of elastic tension or partial contraction in resting muscles.
    2. Normal firmness of a tissue or an organ.

v., toned, ton·ing, tones. v.tr.

  1. To give a particular tone or inflection to.
  2. To soften or change the color of (a painting or photographic negative, for example).
  3. To sound monotonously; intone.
  4. To make firmer or stronger. Often used with up: exercises that tone up the body.

v.intr.

  1. To assume a particular color quality.
  2. To harmonize in color.

phrasal verb:tone down

  1. To make less vivid, harsh, or violent; moderate.

[Middle English ton, from Old French, from Latin tonus, from Greek tonos, string, a stretching.]

http://www.answers.com/topic/tone

What is Entrainment? September 13, 2006

Posted by healthyself in 440 Hz, Biological Effects, Blogroll, Brain, Cell phone safety, Central Nervous System, Definitions, Electrochemical, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic waves, EMF Research, EMF's, Entrainment, Frequencies, Hz, MCS, nerves, Oscillate, Research, Resonance, Resonant Frequency, Tone, Waves.
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Resonant entrainment of oscillating systems

“Resonant entrainment of oscillating systems is a well-understood principle within the physical sciences. If a tuning fork designed to produce a frequency of 440 Hz is struck (causing it to oscillate) and then brought into the vicinity of another 440 Hz tuning fork, the second tuning fork will begin to oscillate. The first tuning fork is said to have entrained the second or caused it to resonate. The physics of entrainment apply to biosystems as well. Of interest here are the electromagnetic brain waves. The electrochemical activity of the brain results in the production of electromagnetic wave forms which can be objectively measured with sensitive equipment. Brain waves change frequencies based on neural activity within the brain. Because neural activity is electrochemical, brain function can be modified through the introduction of specific chemicals (drugs), by altering the brain’s electromagnetic environment through induction, or through resonant entrainment techniques.”

http://web-us.com/thescience.htm

What is a Harmonic? September 11, 2006

Posted by healthyself in 1320 Hz, 440 Hz, 880 Hz, Beneficial frequencies, Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Definitions, Frequencies, Harmonics, Music, Overtones, Sound, Vibration, Waves.
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Harmonics are the geometric multiples created by the vibration of a specific object.

In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency.
Sample for a harmonic series:

1f 440 Hz fundamental frequency first harmonic
2f 880 Hz first overtone second harmonic
3f 1320 Hz second overtone third harmonic

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonic
Harmonic – A sinusoidal quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the frequency of a periodic quantity to which its related. A harmonic series of sounds is one in which the basic frequency of each sound is an integral multiple of some fundamental frequency (halves, thirds, fourths, and so on). The name exists for historical reasons, even though according to the usual mathematical definition such frequencies form an arithmetic series. An ideal string ( or air column ) can vibrate as a whole or in a number of equal parts, and the respective periods of vibration are proportional to the lengths. These increasingly shorter lengths or periods form a harmonic series (2:1, 3:1, 4:1, and so on). 1

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