What is Non-Ionizing Radiation? April 6, 2007Posted by healthyself in 0 Hz-3kHz, 000 Hz, 1 GHz- 300 GHz, 1 mm, 100 nm - 400 nm, 3 kHz-300 GHz, 300 GHz, 400 nm - 700 nm, 700 nm, Amplified Signals, Amplitude, Analog, Antennas, Atmospheric Pressure, Blogroll, Bytes, Cable, Cell Masts, Cell Phones, Coherence, Computer Rooms, Cordless Phones, DECT, Distribution, Earth, EEG, EHF, Electrical Components, Electrical Pulses, Electrical Surges, Electrical Wiring, electromagnetic, Electromagnetic Communications, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Interference, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic Radiation, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, ELF, EMF Research, EMF's, EMR, Entropy, Environment, Exposure, Fiber Optic, Frequencies, Hand Portables, Handheld Units, HF, High Frequencies, high voltage transmission lines, Internet, ionizing radiation, Landline, Laptops, LF, Lifestyle, Light, light beam, Long Term Health Risks, Low Frequencies, Magnetic, MCS, MF, MHz, Microwave exposure, Mobile Music, mobile telephones, Non-Thermal Levels, Penetration, Photons, Photosensitive, Pulsed Radiation, Pulses, Pure Tone, QV, Radar, Radians, radiation, Radio Frequency Radiation, Radio Waves, radioprotector, Radios, Research Needed, Resonance, Resonant Frequency, ringing, ringtones, Risk of Disease, Safe Levels, Safety, SAR, Schuman Resonance, SHF, Speakerphones, Spectrum, Telecommunications, Telephony, Transducer, Transfer, transmission, UHF, Ultraviolet, VDT, Visible Light, VLF, W/Kg, W/m2, watts, Wave Front, Waves, Who is Affected?, WiFi, Wired, Wired Phone, Wireless, Wireless Phones, X-Rays.
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The properties and effects of non-ionising radiations are very diverse. For the purpose of this Policy non-ionising radiations include:
Extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation
Electromagnetic radiation with frequencies in the range 0 Hz (static fields) to 3 kHz, including the 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields associated with the domestic mains electricity supply such as in domestic electrical appliances, electricity supply substations and overhead power lines.
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation
Electromagnetic radiation with frequencies in the range 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which is produced by artificial sources such as visual display units and mobile phones.
Microwave (MW) radiation
Electromagnetic radiation with frequencies in the range 1 GHz to 300 GHz, which is produced by artificial sources such as in microwave ovens and by microwave communication devices. (This radiation is now considered part of Radiofrequency radiation.)
Infrared (IR) radiation
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 700 nm and 1 mm, which is present in sunlight and produced by artificial sources such as electric radiator heaters.
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 400 nm (blue) and 700 nm (red), which is present in sunlight and produced by numerous artificial sources, including lasers.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 100 nm and 400 nm, which is present in sunlight as well as produced by artificial sources such as arc welding and sterilization lamps.
How is the Electromagnetic Radiation Measured? October 16, 2006Posted by healthyself in Blogroll, Definitions, Electrical Components, Electrical Pulses, Electrical Surges, Electrical Wiring, Electromagetic pollution, electromagnetic, Electromagnetic Communications, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Interference, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, ELF, EMF's, EMR, Environment, Exposure, Frequencies, GHz, Global Warming, Government's role, HF, High Frequencies, high voltage transmission lines, HOuseholds, Hz, Infrared, LF, Lifestyle, light beam, Low Frequencies, MF, MHz, Microwave exposure, Pulsed Radiation, Pulses, Quantum Waves, radiation, Radio Waves, Radios, Sound, Spectrum, transmission, Ultraviolet, Unified Field, Visible Light, VLF, Waves.
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…The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is …types of radiation … as a group. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes– visible light …. from a lamp….or radio waves .. or from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples of EM radiation are microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays. Hotter, more energetic objects and events create higher energy radiation than cool objects. Only extremely hot objects or particles moving at very high velocities can create high-energy radiation like X-rays and gamma-rays. Here are the different types of radiation in the EM spectrum, in order from lowest energy to highest:
|Radio: …this is the same kind of energy that radio stations emit into the air …to capture and turn into your favorite Mozart, Madonna, or Coolio tunes. But radio waves are also emitted by other things … such as stars and gases in space…|
|Microwaves: … will cook your popcorn in just a few minutes! In space, microwaves are used by astronomers to learn about the structure of nearby galaxies, including our own Milky Way!|
|Infrared: we often think of this as being the same thing as ‘heat’, because it makes our skin feel warm. In space, IR light maps the dust between stars. Visible:…this is the part that our eyes see. Visible radiation is emitted by everything from fireflies to light bulbs to stars … also by fast-moving particles hitting other particles.
Ultraviolet: we know that the Sun is a source of ultraviolet (or UV) radiation, because it is the UV rays that cause our skin to burn! Stars and other “hot” objects in space emit UV radiation.
|X-rays: your doctor uses them to look at your bones and your dentist to look at your teeth. Hot gases in the Universe also emit X-rays .|
|Gamma-rays: radioactive materials (some natural and others made by man in things like nuclear power plants) can emit gamma-rays. Big particle accelerators that scientists use to help them understand what matter is made of can sometimes generate gamma-rays. But the biggest gamma-ray generator of all is the Universe! It makes gamma radiation in all kinds of ways.|
A Radio Wave is not a Gamma-Ray, a Microwave is not an X-ray … or is it?
|Radio waves, visible light, X-rays, and all the other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are fundamentally the same thing, electromagnetic radiation.|
We may think that radio waves are completely different physical objects or events than gamma-rays. They are produced in very different ways, and we detect them in different ways. But are they really different things? The answer is ‘no’. Radio waves, visible light, X-rays, and all the other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are fundamentally the same thing. They are all electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, which are massless particles each traveling in a wave-like pattern and moving at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain amount (or bundle) of energy, and all electromagnetic radiation consists of these photons. The only difference between the various types of electromagnetic radiation is the amount of energy found in the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwaves have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared has still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and … the most energetic of all … gamma-rays.
|The electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency.|
“Actually, the electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Each way of thinking about the EM spectrum is related to the others in a precise mathematical way. So why do we have three ways of describing things, each with a different set of physical units? After all, frequency is measured in cycles per second (which is called a Hertz), wavelength is measured in meters, and energy is measured in electron volts.”
“The answer is that scientists don’t like to use big numbers when they don’t have to. It is much easier to say or write “two kilometers or 2 km” than “two thousand meters or 2,000 m”. So generally, scientists use whatever units are easiest for whatever they are working with. In radio astronomy, astronomers tend to use wavelengths or frequencies. This is because most of the radio part of the EM spectrum falls in the range from a about 1 cm to 1 km (30 gigahertz (GHz) to 100 kilohertz (kHz)). The radio is a very broad part of the EM spectrum. Infrared astronomers also use wavelength to describe their part of the EM spectrum. They tend to use microns (or millionths of meters) for wavelengths, so that they can say their part of the EM spectrum falls in the range 1 to 100 microns. Optical astronomers use wavelengths as well. In the older “CGS” version of the metric system, the units used were angstroms. An angstrom is equal to 0.0000000001 meters (10-10 m in scientific notation)! In the newer “SI” version of the metric system, we think of visible light in units of nanometers or 0.000000001 meters (10-9 m). In this system, the violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red light we know so well has wavelengths between 400 and 700 nanometers. This range is only a small part of the entire EM spectrum, so you can tell that the light we see is just a little fraction of all the EM radiation around us! By the time you get to the ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma-ray regions of the EM spectrum, lengths have become too tiny to think about any more. So scientists usually refer to these photons by their energies, which are measured in electron volts. Ultraviolet radiation falls in the range from a few electron volts (eV) to a about 100 eV. X-ray photons have energies in the range 100 eV to 100,000 eV (or 100 keV). Gamma-rays then are all the photons with energies greater than 100 keV.
Why Do We Have to Go to Space to See All of the Electromagnetic Spectrum?
Electromagnetic radiation from space is unable to reach the surface of the Earth except at a very few wavelengths, such as the visible spectrum, radio frequencies, and some ultraviolet wavelengths. Astronomers can get above enough of the Earth’s atmosphere to observe at some infrared wavelengths from mountain tops or by flying their telescopes in an aircraft. Experiments can also be taken up to altitudes as high as 35 km by balloons which can operate for months. Rocket flights can take instruments all the way above the Earth’s atmosphere for just a few minutes before they fall back to Earth, but a great many important first results in astronomy and astrophysics came from just those few minutes of observations. For long-term observations, however, it is best to have your detector on an orbiting satellite … and get above it all!
What are the Wavelengths of the Electromagnetic Spectrum? September 27, 2006Posted by healthyself in Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Definitions, Distribution, Electromagnetic Communications, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Interference, Electromagnetic pollution, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Electrosensitivity, Electrosmog, ELF, EMR, Endogenous Fields, Environment, Frequencies, Gamma Rays, Infrared, Light, Microwave exposure, mobile telephones, Noise, particle, Radio Waves, Radios, Sound, Spectrum, Telecommunications, Telephony, transmission, UHF, Ultraviolet, VDT, Visible Light, X-Rays.
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“The electromagnetic spectrum is the distribution of electromagnetic radiation according to energy (or equivalently, by virtue of the relations in the previous section, according to frequency or wavelength).”
Regions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
“The following table gives approximate wavelengths, frequencies, and energies for selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.”
|Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation|
The notation “eV” stands for electron-volts, a common unit of energy measure in atomic physics. A graphical representation of the electromagnetic spectrum is shown in the figure below.
|The electromagnetic spectrum|
“Thus we see that visible light and gamma rays and microwaves are really the same things. They are all electromagnetic radiation; they just differ in their wavelengths.”
The Spectrum of Visible Light
The visible part of the spectrum may be further subdivided according to color, with red at the long wavelength end and violet at the short wavelength end, as illustrated (schematically) in the following figure.
|The visible spectrum|
What is Tone? September 22, 2006Posted by healthyself in 1000 Hz, 320 Hz, 440 Hz, 880 Hz, Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Cell Phones, Ear, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Frequencies, Harmonics, Hearing, Noise, Pitch, Sound, Spectrum, Tone, Waves.
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Tone (music and acoustics)
Physically, a sound that is composed of discrete frequency (or sine-wave) components; psychologically, an auditory sensation that is characterized foremost by its pitch or pitches.
The physical definition distinguishes a tone from a noise, wherein the components form a continuum of frequencies. Tones may be pure, consisting of a single frequency, or they may be complex. Complex tones, in turn, may be periodic or not periodic. Periodic complex tones repeat themselves at rapid regular intervals. They have frequency components that are harmonics—discrete frequencies that are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency. For example, the tone of an oboe consists of a fundamental frequency of 440 hertz, a second harmonic component with a frequency of 880 Hz, a third harmonic at 1320 Hz, and so on. In general, musical instruments that generate continuous sounds—the bowed strings, the brasses, and the woodwinds—create such periodic tones. Tones that are not periodic (aperiodic) have frequency components that do not fit a harmonic series. Percussive instruments such as kettledrums and bells make such aperiodic tones.
Pitch is a sensation of highness or lowness that is the basic element of melody. Periodic complex tones tend to have a single pitch, which listeners will match by a pure tone having a frequency equal to the fundamental frequency of the periodic complex tone. Aperiodic complex tones tend to have multiple pitches. A second psychological attribute of complex tones is tone color or timbre. Tone color is often represented by descriptive adjectives. The adjectives may be linked to the physical spectrum. Thus, a tone with strong harmonics above 1000 Hz may be called “bright.” A tone with no harmonics at all above 1000 Hz may be called “dull” or “stuffy.”
- A sound of distinct pitch, quality, and duration; a note.
- The interval of a major second in the diatonic scale; a whole step.
- A recitational melody in a Gregorian chant.
- The quality or character of sound.
- The characteristic quality or timbre of a particular instrument or voice.
- The pitch of a word used to determine its meaning or to distinguish differences in meaning.
- The particular or relative pitch of a word, phrase, or sentence.
- Manner of expression in speech or writing: took an angry tone with the reporters.
- A general quality, effect, or atmosphere: a room with an elegant tone.
- A color or shade of color: light tones of blue.
- Quality of color: The green wallpaper had a particularly somber tone.
- The general effect in painting of light, color, and shade.
- The normal state of elastic tension or partial contraction in resting muscles.
- Normal firmness of a tissue or an organ.
v., toned, ton·ing, tones. v.tr.
- To give a particular tone or inflection to.
- To soften or change the color of (a painting or photographic negative, for example).
- To sound monotonously; intone.
- To make firmer or stronger. Often used with up: exercises that tone up the body.
- To assume a particular color quality.
- To harmonize in color.
phrasal verb:tone down
- To make less vivid, harsh, or violent; moderate.
[Middle English ton, from Old French, from Latin tonus, from Greek tonos, string, a stretching.]
What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? September 21, 2006Posted by healthyself in Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Color, Definitions, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic waves, Frequencies, Gamma Rays, Infrared, Light, light beam, Low Frequencies, Magnetic, MHz, Microwave exposure, Oscillate, Photons, Radio Waves, Spectrum, Visible Light.
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“..Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern, moving at the speed of light and carrying some amount of energy. … the only difference between radio waves, visible light, and gamma-rays is the energy of the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwaves have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared has still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.”"Actually, the amount of energy a photon has makes it sometimes behave more like a wave and sometimes more like a particle. This is called the “ wave-particle duality” of light. …only in how it behaves. Low energy photons (such as radio) behave more like waves, while higher energy photons (such as X-rays) behave more like particles. …the electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Each way of thinking about the EM spectrum is related to the others in a precise mathematical way. The relationships are:
the wavelength equals the speed of light divided by the frequency
lambda = c / nu” http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/emspectrum.html
Light, Color and Electromagnetic Frequency September 21, 2006Posted by healthyself in 430 Trillion Hz-750 Trillion Hz, Auric Field, Beneficial frequencies, BioPhotons, Blogroll, Cell phone safety, Color, Electromagnetic Field, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetic waves, Energy, Gamma Rays, Light, Low Frequencies, Oscillate, Penetration, Quantum Physics, Radio Waves, Red, Resonance, Spectrum, Subtle Energies, Transformation, vacuum, Vibration, Vibrational Medicine, Violet, Visible Light, Waves.
…”The scientific notion of photons begins with the fact that these elementary particles of energy display two seemingly contradictory behaviors: One behavior has to do with how they act as members of a group (in a wavefront) and the other relates to how they behave in isolation (as discrete particles).”
“An individual photon may be thought of as a packet of waves cork-screwing rapidly through space. Each packet is an oscillation along two perpendicular axes of force – the electrical and the magnetic. Because light is an oscillation, wave-particles interact with each other.
“One way of understanding the dual-nature of light is to realize that wave after wave of photons affect our telescopes – but individual photons are absorbed by the neurons in our eyes.”…….. “Stars (such as our Sun) exist because space-time does more than simply transmit light as waves. Somehow – still unexplained-1 – space-time causes matter too. And one thing distinguishing light from matter is that matter has “mass” while light has none….”
….”In relationship to light, matter can be opaque or transparent – it can absorb or refract light. Light can pass into matter, through matter, reflect off matter, or be absorbed by matter. When light passes into matter, light slows – while its frequency increases. When light reflects, the path it takes changes. When light is absorbed, electrons are stimulated potentially leading to new molecular combinations. But even more significantly, when light passes through matter – even without absorption – atoms and molecules vibrate the space-time continuum and because of this, light can be stepped down in frequency….”
…”In addition to describing the gravitational effects of matter on space-time, Einstein performed an extremely elegant investigation into the influence of light associated with the photo-electric effect. Before Einstein, physicists believed light’s capacity to affect matter was based primarily on “intensity”. But the photo-electric effect showed that light effected electrons on the basis of frequency as well…….In addition to describing the gravitational effects of matter on space-time, Einstein performed an extremely elegant investigation into the influence of light associated with the photo-electric effect.. showed that light effected electrons on the basis of frequency as well. Thus red light – regardless of intensity – fails to dislodge electrons in metals, while even very low levels of violet light stimulate measurable electrical currents. Clearly the rate at which light vibrates has a power all its own.”
“Light waves also come in many frequencies. The frequency is the number of waves that pass a point in space during any time interval, usually one second. It is measured in units of cycles (waves) per second, or Hertz (Hz). The frequency of visible light is referred to as color, and ranges from 430 trillion Hz, seen as red, to 750 trillion Hz, seen as violet. Again, the full range of frequencies extends beyond the visible spectrum, from less than one billion Hz, as in radio waves, to greater than 3 billion billion Hz, as in gamma rays.”
“As noted above, light waves are waves of energy. The amount of energy in a light wave is proportionally related to its frequency: High frequency light has high energy; low frequency light has low energy. Thus gamma rays have the most energy, and radio waves have the least. Of visible light, violet has the most energy and red the least.”
“Light not only vibrates at different frequencies, it also travels at different speeds. Light waves move through a vacuum at their maximum speed, 300,000 kilometers per second or 186,000 miles per second, which makes light the fastest phenomenon in the universe. Light waves slow down when they travel inside substances, such as air, water, glass or a diamond. The way different substances affect the speed at which light travels is key to understanding the bending of light, or refraction…”
“So light waves come in a continuous variety of sizes, frequencies and energies. We refer to this continuum as the electromagnetic spectrum …visible light occupies only one-thousandth of a percent of the spectrum.”